Do You Actually Need To Remove Your Cross Stitch From The Hoop?

Everyone knows that you shouldn’t keep your cross stitch in a hoop… but it that actually true?
Over the last 6 months, I’ve been testing out different cross stitch frames ad leaving aida in them for seriously long periods of time. Just to see, what happens. And the answer is actually a little complicated.

Does it leave marks?

When I asked around, the main reason people gave for not wanting to keep cross stitch in the frame/hoop was leaving marks. But does it?
Yes. But also no. Hoops, bar frames, ‘Grip n Clip’ all leave marks. Now, frames and Q snaps don’t, but they can curl the fabric. This really isn’t much of an issue if you wash it, but there are many out there that don’t wash your cross stitch.
But hoops do leave marks. Our tests showed that even loose tension hoops could put marks in aida left for a week. Just one week. Now, they can be dealt with, fairly easy, but the longer you leave the hoop in, the harder it is to get out. We’ve tried, and we still can’t get some hoop marks out.
If you’re looking for more info, I’ve rounded up the results in my post about which cross stitch frame is best.

Hoop Marks in Cross Stitch (Source: Handmade by Hannah)
Hoop Marks in Cross Stitch (Source: Handmade by Hannah)

Does it cause other problems?

So what about other problems? Well, here is where the story gets interesting. Leaving your cross stitch in the frame or hoop, DOES cause other issues. Some of these can be easy to deal with, others, not so much.
Stretching – Frames and hoops stretch your fabric. That’s their point after all. But consistent and long term stretching will permanently keep the stretch. This might change a 14 count into a 12 count (one of our test pieces was stretched this much), and whilst that doesn’t seem too bad initially it can have implications. If you’re looking to frame it, it might not fit. If it’s stretched, all the holes are bigger, letting the background show through. And the biggest thing? It’s rarely uniform. There’s nothing worse than having a miss shapen part of your cross stitch that took hours and hours to complete…
Crushing Stitches – In my opinion, this is the biggest issue with leaving cross stitch in a frame, as its unfixable. Let’s say you’ve stitched a section and you move your hoop and some of your stitches are under the hoop. Those stitches are being crushed. Even for short periods of time, this can be an issue, which is why I use a frame, which is slightly better but still has the problem. As you crush those stitches, the tension goes, the top stitch can wonder, and you can even pull the threads out if you’re not careful.
Crushed stitches are really obvious in a finished cross stitch, and whilst washing can give them a little rejuvenation, it can’t fix the worse cases.
Dirt – This is actually a fairly big issue. I know you’re thinking you can just wash your cross stitch, but when its in a frame or hoop the aida is pulled apart slightly. If dirt gets into these stretched parts, it gets stuck and you can’t wash it out as easy. A good solution here is a grime guard, but if you’re traveling, always remove it from the frame.

So do you need to remove it from the frame?

Well, it depends.
If you’re traveling, regardless of the frame or hoop you use, REMOVE IT. You’re just asking for trouble, even with a grime guard. But for anyone not traveling, it’s all about the frame itself. Personally, I would always loosen it when it’s in a frame (just to remove the tension), but when it’s in a hoop, remove it. Whilst the hoop marks are fairly easy to get out (see below) it’s not worth the extra effort, and can damage some of your stitches if you leave the hoop in long enough.

Easy Clip Cross Stitch Frame (source: amazon)
Easy Clip Cross Stitch Frame (source: amazon)

What happens if the worse has already happened?

OK, so you might be reading this after the event, so let me help you if it’s too late.
Marks/Stretching – If you’ve been left with marks or stretching, wash, dry and iron your cross stitch. It’s important that you follow the drying stage of this guide if you’ve got stretching or hoop marks as the ‘blocking’ as it’s referred to allows the aida to move back into shape. If you’ve still got marks after one wash, wash it again (before ironing). It can take quite a few cycles to get those annoying hoop marks out.
Dirt – Generally, washing will probably help you here too, but if you’re really struggling to get some of that ingrained dirt out, you can try a few cross stitch stain removal techniques to help you get it out.

Washing cross stitch (source:
Washing cross stitch (source:


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Home Sweet Home Futurama Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan

Futurama Home Sweet Home Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan
Futurama Home Sweet Home Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan

Title: Home Sweet Home Futurama Cross Stitch
Date Completed: October 2019
Design: Lord Libidan
Count: 14
Canvas: White
Colours: 3
Pop Culture: Futurama
Before I started cross stitching back in 2001, I knew of cross stitch. This was before the big cross stitch revolution in England, and I didn’t have anyone I knew cross stitching, or even crafting. So how did I know about it? Futurama. Yes, the sci-fi cartoon.
But I want to go slightly further back to tell this story. Matt Groening, the creator of the Simpsons and Futurama, has regularly made nods to needlework in the past. In fact, Marge Simpson cross stitches, which we covered in our Celebrities That Cross Stitch post, but it was always something that someone was doing. It was never the main joke itself. But then Futurama comes along.
Futurama Screenshot S01E03 of Home Sweet Home Cross Stitch (Source: Reddit)
Futurama Screenshot S01E03 of Home Sweet Home Cross Stitch (Source: Reddit)

As you can see from the above screenshot, Futurama made a simple joke using the ‘home sweet home’ cross stitch in its first season when Fry and Bender get an apartment. But teenage me, who fell head over heels for Futurama didn’t quite get it. Clearly, it was a joke. Clearly, you were meant to understand. But I didn’t. Until a lot of lewd jokes that might go over your head, this was a joke that was clear as day, begging you to laugh.
Well, I looked it up. I saw the cross stitch, but I still didn’t understand. I ended up learning to code from that Futurama code, and now I get the joke, and in fact, I can see the error in the programming now too, but it was the first time I saw cross stitch, and understood it was a thing.
I’ve taken on the joke, and I’ve even stitched a Pokemon Home Sweet Home Cross Stitch in the past, like many cross stitchers and made a free pattern of it too, however not the version that first showed me cross stitch. Some 20 years later, when rewatching Futurama I knew I had to stitch this up.
Sadly, despite the many patterns out there for this, none were perfect. This is mostly due to the fact that it’s a cartoon and pixels mean nothing, so it’s impossible to make it perfect, but I made my own and tried to be as close as possible without ruining the overall look.


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Hate Needle Minders? There is a Solution…

It’s probably no surprise to regular readers, but I’m a fan of needle minders. I’ve spoken about the weird world of needle minders before, but there’s something you might not know: I don’t put needle minders on my work.
OK, OK, I love them, and I use them, but I keep it next to me on my work table. I’ve spoken before about finding the perfect needle minder as there is a real issue with needle minders; their weight. But there are also people who just don’t like them. So what are the alternatives if you aren’t a needle minder fan?

Magnetic Needle Case

I hate needle storage. In fact, I’ve gone into detail about how to store cross stitch needles, and in that list, I mention magnetic boxes. They’re a great place to store the needles in the long term, but in the short term, they offer a lovely place for needles on the go. Not only can you store needles inside, but most come with a magnetic cover, so you can drop your active needles on the top too. Its another thing you have to keep around you, but if it saves you stepping on a needle, its worth it.

DMC Magnetic Needle Case (Source: Etsy)
DMC Magnetic Needle Case (Source: Etsy)


Alright, this is cheating a little bit considering that I just mentioned something magnetic, but you don’t have to have some fancy box to hold your needle. You can buy rolls of magnetic tape, or even just plain old magnets from Etsy and Amazon for super cheap, and you can stick them to anything! I’ve seen them used wonderfully on a cross stitch scroll frame, but pretty much anywhere is game!
If you have an ORT jar you can place a magnet under the lid. The magnet sticks to the metal lid, and the top becomes a great place for needles!

A Small Needle Minder

I actually eluded to this in the intro, but needle minders are cool. There’s no arguing. They are the best. I personally have a miniature cake plate, cos if I’m not thinking about cross stitch, its cake. But they are a bit annoying sometimes. So instead of setting them up on your work, remove the back magnet and just stick them to something metal! I have one on my lamp, my desk leg, and one stuck to the top of my thread box (with glue).
Just because you can’t get along with needle minders on your case, doesn’t mean you have to forego them all together.

chapelviewcrafts polymer cake needle minder by chapelviewcrafts (source: etsy)
Polymer Miniature Cake Needle Ninder by Chapelviewcrafts (Source: Etsy)

A Smaller Needle Minder

Let’s get real for a second. One of the biggest reasons people don’t like needle minders is they might damage the work. Now I don’t know this is the case, but they can sag your nicely taught aida if it’s too heavy. But not all needle minders are created equal. Getting a small needle minder will be less heavy, and it’ll fit nicely on your work without damaging it!

Tiny Kitten Needle Minders by Snarky Crafter (Source: Etsy)
Tiny Kitten Needle Minders by Snarky Crafter (Source: Etsy)


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The Best Cross Stitch Toys

My niece LOVES to pick up my cross stitch. It doesn’t matter if it’s half-completed or not, she wants her hands on it. So I thought to myself; maybe there is cross stitch out there, specifically made to be played with. Today, we run down the best cross stitch toys.

Thread Maniac’s Mazes

OK, so I lied already. Thread Maniac hasn’t just created a maze, they’ve created a whole series of cross stitch you can frame and then draw on using dry erase markers. From mazes to tic-tac-toe and the obligatory black board, kids can go nuts drawing and never damage the cross stitch. Very neat idea.

Maze cross stitch by Thread Maniac (Source:
Maze cross stitch by Thread Maniac (Source:

BlackMageHeart’s Farm Playset

What about something more tactile? Well, we have those in bunches. First up is BlackMageHeart’s Harvest Moon Playset. Complete with 24 crops, a house, farmer, cow, chicken, chick, duck and two ducklings its a full-on farming set, that kids would LOVE to get their hands on. The best thing about it, however, is that the floor, a perfectly stitched farm, is in a frame, meaning it packs up nice and neat once they’re done playing.

3D Harvest Moon Cross Stitch Playset by BlackMageHeart (Source: Etsy)
3D Harvest Moon Cross Stitch Playset by BlackMageHeart (Source: Etsy)


Next up we have the figures section. Move over Barbie and Action Man, now we have cross stitch guys. Or more specifically, these two. By stitching simple boxes out of plastic canvas you can make pretty much anything you want. In this instance we both made characters, with my cross stitch being about to transform from robot to truck.

3D Minecraft Cross Stitch by an anonymous user (Source: reddit)
3D Minecraft Cross Stitch by an anonymous user (Source: reddit)

Optimus Prime Transforming 3D Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan in robot form
Optimus Prime Transforming 3D Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan in robot form

RobinsDesigns 3D Cross Stitch

Robin’s Design is one of our all time favorite cross stitch designers. We’ve highlighted her work loads of times in the past including using it as the posterboy of our best 3D cross stitch and even trying to copy the style with my own Harry Potter golden snitch cross stitch. As you can probably tell then, we’re in love with her 3D work, which includes everything from dice to people, to animals, and planets. Best of all, its all made from traditional aida, so is soft like a cuddly toy.

Earth and Moon sphere cross stitches by robinsdesign (source: Etsy)
Earth and Moon sphere cross stitches by robinsdesign (source: Etsy)


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Ever wondered why embroidery threads are cotton?

In this quarters XStitch Magazine I wrote about the Silk Road, and how an often-ignored part of Asian history had a vital impact on the origins of cross stitch.
In the piece I often talk about silk, hence the Silk Road name, and talk about how it threads migrated along the route, eventually ending in the round city of Baghdad, where cross stitch was invented. Here not only did they invent the stitch itself, but hessian, an early form of aida. You can find out more in our definitive history of cross stitch. However, my XStitch piece ends there, with silk fibers on a hessian back. So how come we now stitch using cotton fibers?

So why did we change from silk to cotton threads?

It should be noted that whilst cotton has always been used as a thread, it was a luxury product. Silk was the cheaper alternative. The reason for this was simple, whilst there was more cotton available, the processing of cotton took a very long time. Unlike silk strands; literally taken from silk worm cocoons in a long strand, cotton had to be cleaned, split, pulled, stained, woven and washed again. This took a long time and meant that cotton production wasn’t a viable alternative to silk production.

But things did start to change. In India, in the 5th century, they invented a rolling cotton gin. This allowed them to clean and split the cotton fibers very quickly. It was reported that one man and one woman, without using a cotton gin could clean half a pound of cotton a day, but with the cotton gin, they could clean 28 pounds, and if an ox was put to work, they could make 750 pounds a day. They soon started producing large scale and cotton became a rewarding, but niche industry. The reason it was so niche was thanks to India’s specific climate. The climate allowed for the growth of long-staple cotton, which, apart from a few other locations, only grew in India.

Therefore, whilst India enjoyed the advances of cotton, much of the world went without. That was, until 1793, and Eli Whitney.

Undyed Silk Threads (Source:
Undyed Silk Threads (Source:

Who’s Eli Whitney?

Eli Whitney, to most, is known as one of the many key figures in starting the American Civil War. This is all due to slavery. When America got its independence in 1776, slavery was a trade, but not a booming one. Slaves had their uses, but in most instances, their cost outweighed their use. By the mid-1700s, rice, tobacco, and indigo were all losing value, and slavery started to dwindle. This is where Eli’s new cotton gin comes in. Eli, who was against slave ownership, wanted to invest in the future of the United States and created a tool that could be used with the US short-staple cotton, much in the same way India had used it, with livestock.
Whilst this was a noble pursuit, it turned out that the new cotton grew fantastically well in Georgia state. Slavery not only became profitable but took the US by storm, in part resulting in the start of the American Civil war. Eli actually worked with the North to abolish slavery, however his invention, the cotton gin, was a tool that revolutionized the fabric trade.

Eli Whitney's original cotton gin patent, dated March 14, 1794 (Source: Wikipedia)
Eli Whitney’s original cotton gin patent, dated March 14, 1794 (Source: Wikipedia)

Soon, the cotton gin was exported all over the world, where it became the most cost-effective tool for making a thread.


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Futurama Cross Stitch Pattern Spotlight

It’s really important to us that we use non-copyrighted images for our cross stitch pattern spotlight, so when we were given the task of finding a killer Futurama pattern, we thought we’d have a struggle on our hands. However, in our search we found some really great patterns, with no copyright, but still, clearly Futurama.

Futurama Cross Stitch Pattern by PatternArtCollection

Futurama Cross Stitch Pattern by PatternArtCollection (Source: Etsy)
Futurama Cross Stitch Pattern by PatternArtCollection (Source: Etsy)

We’ve decided to post two patterns this week. It’s actually the same pattern, but in different colors, something that the designer, PatternArtCollection does a lot. It’s in the designer’s typical style, which at the moment is super in; a silhouette front with a detailed, but small color palette. I’m a massive fan of their work, having stitched up three of their patterns myself, so I know that they’re great to stitch, as well as great looking in the flesh.
The funky colors, day and night feel, with Fry under Bender’s legs gives a real feeling of how Bender thinks of himself in the Futurama episode ‘Obsoletely Fabulous’ whilst the forest background also plays off the Forbidden Planet; a massive influence of the series. Truly a great pattern.
This pattern was found on Etsy.


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Do you really NEED to wash your cross stitch?

When it comes to washing cross stitch you’re either in the “always wash it” camp, or the “do I really NEED to wash it?” camp. Today, we’re going to try and answer that question, and see if washing cross stitch is a requirement or just a good idea.

The case for NEVER washing it

Washing and drying cross stitch is a bit of a pain, however that isn’t the reason people don’t want to do it. Its mostly fear. Fear of threads bleeding, or the piece reshaping. These are founded fears as well; threads do occasionally bleed, and threads of poor quality will bleed a lot more. Aida returns to its original shape when washing, and can sometimes tighten threads (again, mostly those of poor quality). As a result, washing can seem like a crazy thing to do if you’ve just stitched for 100 hours.
The thing is, you’ll find loads of people online who have never washed their cross stitch, and they’ve been doing it for 40 years. I’m yet to see any proof, but I honestly believe them. If your hands are well washed, you come from a smoke and pet free home, and you only work with high-quality materials, there is no reason to suggest your cross stitch is dirty.
Does that mean you shouldn’t wash it though?

The case for ALWAYS washing it

Fingers are dirty. The air is dusty. Accident’s happen. There are loads of reasons why your cross stitch might be dirty, and as a result, washing it removes all of that. Not only that but ironing it afterward will stop the dirt from getting worse.
I personally, always wash my cross stitch. And that is a direct result of two cross stitches I did when I was learning when I didn’t wash them.
The first is a retro trio cross stitch that I have simply never washed. I was worried that the threads might bleed (I’ve since checked, and even cheap threads don’t bleed). As time went on, and the sun took its toll, brown spots appeared. I’ve tried washing these out, but I can’t, these are permanent.

Brown Spots on Cross Stitch
Brown Spots on Cross Stitch

The second horror story, is my second ever cross stitch, my Fire ‘n’ Ice cross stitch. In this one, I made a different mistake; I didn’t clean my hands when stitching. There are now, LOADS of brown spots.
Brown Spots on Cross Stitch
Brown Spots on Cross Stitch

OK, both of these could have been improved had I framed my cross stitch properly, but the marks would come eventually. I’ve since learned my lesson on why you should both wash your hands, and your cross stitch, but even if you do, stains might come afterward.
I’ve tried to remove cross stitch stains before, and I can tell you it is a LOT easier when it has been ironed.

Wash or not wash?

So, I guess the answer is “probably”. Washing your cross stitch will significantly help reduce issues, and will mean its easier to clean in the future. However, if you’re 100% sure your hands were clean, and you aren’t too invested in keeping your cross stitches for the future, you don’t have to wash them.
But from personal experience; I always do.


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The Best Cross Stitch Travel Scissors

As an independent website, we don’t promote one brand over another, however today we’re making a slight exception. Not due to the fact that one brand is better, but there only appears to be one brand. In fact, it appears the tool I want to talk about today seems to be very niche; however, I think they’re one of the best things any cross stitcher can get.
Without beating around the bush anymore, I want to talk about Canary mini snips. These little things are super tiny scissors, which you use with the tips of your fingers, instead of pushing your fingers through the hoop handles of a standard pair of scissors.

Canary Micro Scissors in a palm (Source:
Canary Micro Scissors in a palm (Source:

You may know that I’m a big fan of getting the perfect scissors for you however these little scissors might just be my all-time favorites. As small snips, they are perfect for thread cutting, they don’t take up much space, you don’t have to fiddle with finding the hoops and getting the proper control. You can pick these up and make a snip and put them back before even getting a normal pair of scissors ready. However, their excellence doesn’t end there. They’re round-tipped, meaning you won’t stab yourself, they can be attached to keychains or put into a travel cross stitch kit, and as the blades are super tiny, they’re fully safe scissors to fly with.
It also helps that you can pick them up for under $10.
You can pick up a pair on in a variety of styles
Canary Micro Scissors (Source: Amazon)
Canary Micro Scissors (Source: Amazon)


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New Moon on Tokyo Tower Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan

New Moon on Tokyo Tower Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan
New Moon on Tokyo Tower Cross Stitch by Lord Libidan

Title: New Moon on Tokyo Tower
Date Completed: June 2019
Design: Lord Libidan
Count: 18
Canvas: Navy
Colors: 19
Pop Culture: Japan
When the editor of the Xstitch Mag announced the new theme for issue 9 was going to be oriented; I knew exactly why. A few months before I have shown him a preview of my Moon Light in Yasaka Pagoda Cross Stitch (just before I decided to remove the Pokemon from it), and showed him what an awesome theme it could make.
However, that turned out to be a little problematic. The piece of art I used to make that cross stitch was still under copyright, meaning I couldn’t give the pattern to the Editor. Instead, I had to make my own. Now, I loved Asano Takeji’s work and thought I could riff on his style, whilst bringing it slightly more modern. To do this I researched when the ukiyo-e style went out of fashion. It was roughly the 1870’s. That meant that none of the modern Japanese buildings would be captured in the form.
Having visited Tokyo a few years prior, I also felt that the new Tokyo Skytree overshadowed Tokyo’s previous iconic tower; The Tokyo Tower. Following the American occupation of Japan, in the 1950s, Japan wanted to celebrate its newfound freedom with a new and audacious tower. Based on the Eiffel Tower they constructed a new tower, which was originally planned to be painted Bronze, but due to height regulations at the time had to have a red and white candy stripe paint job.
The tower, when completed would have been a beacon to all of Japan that they were back in charge, and were once again, ready to enter the world stage. However, at the time, modernization hadn’t come to a lot of Japan, meaning a lot of streets were traditional in design. I really wanted to combine this design to show both the new Japan and traditional Japan side by side.
To do this I combined images of Tokyo Tower, and a preserved traditional street in Tokyo, ironically next to Yasaka Pagoda, Sannen Zaka Street. I then lowered the tone of color to show a deep night sky, free of moonlight, to differentiate it from my previous Asano Takeji piece.


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How to Make Sure You Buy a Cross Stitch Pattern That Isn’t Copyrighted

With sites like Etsy pumping out cross stitch patterns by the thousands, finding a quality cross stitch pattern can be hard. We helpfully went over a few tips for making sure you get a good pattern, however one of those points was about copyright. Copyright in cross stitch is a massive issue, and if you haven’t yet been involved in something to do with copyright, you’re lucky. However, the biggest issue is with selling patterns.

Why Should You Care?

This is probably the big question we need to look at first, after all, why should you care about copyright in cross stitch? and I’m not going to say you should (even if I think it). Instead, I’m telling you it’s in your best interest. If the pattern you’re looking at is copyrighted, its either going to be bad quality, putting the real designer out of business (and stopping them creating more patterns you love) or its a trap.
What do I mean by a trap? PDFs are a great way of spreading malware and viruses on your computer. Downloading a pattern that abuses your desire to get a cross stitch pattern is just one way of giving you a virus.

Does It Only Matter When Its A Known Character/Theme?

Whilst the vast majority of copyright infringement happens on well-known characters, etc, this advice is actually a good tool generally. By following it you know you’re going to get a good pattern, and aren’t going to get the stiff end of the deal.

The Advice:

– Is it a well known Character?

As we said above, well-known characters are a big issue, and if you’re seeing things like Disney characters on sites like Etsy or eBay; it’s copyrighted.
There are outlets for well-known characters, but these are sold in legitimate shops or are turned into books. I even wrote one myself for Disney, Star Wars, Star Trek and Hello Kitty. However, all of these books cost hundreds of thousands of dollars to purchase the rights. Etsy stores just don’t have the capital to afford that.
Disney classic cross stitch book by Lord Libidan cover (source: amazon)Star Wars Cross Stitch Book by Lord Libidan Alternative Cover (source: Amazon)
Disney Classic Cross Stitch Book Kit & Star Wars Book Kits by Lord Libidan

– Are there loads and loads of patterns in different styles?

One of the first things designers work out is their signature style. If you see a website with loads of different styles, it’s a dead giveaway that there isn’t one designer involved. The source of these patterns is probably stolen.

– Are the cross stitch patterns super cheap?

Price is an interesting point for cross stitch patterns. Places like HAED can charge a big sum for patterns, however, you can pick up some for less than $10. However, if you ever see a pattern for less than $5; buyer beware. These margins make it almost impossible for sellers to make money, so if they’re charging for less than that, then you know selling quality cross stitch patterns isn’t their goal.

– Is there licensing information?

If someone is using a great looking piece of art to make a pattern, they need to say who did the original art. Now, if a pattern doesn’t say any licensing info, then the likelihood is that it’s being used without the original artist’s consent. From the artist’s point of view, this is annoying, but for the buyer, it means the pattern designer is willing to cut corners and give you a cut-rate cross stitch pattern.

“Octopus” counted cross stitch pattern. Designed by Vik Dollin.

– Is it clearly scanned/photocopied?

You actually find a lot of these type of patterns spread across sites like Pinterest and eBay, and yes, the patterns are probably good, they come from great designers. However the photocopied version is not only an illegal copy, but it’s putting the designer out of business. If you like their pattern; buy it from them. Otherwise, they’ll have to stop making awesome patterns.

– Is it from a questionable website?

The last tip is probably the biggest one. There are loads of websites out there that just deal with a lot of copyrighted patterns. Only use the ones that are well known, and other cross stitchers use.
Places like eBay, Etsy, AliExpress, and Amazon have MASSIVE issues with copyright. That isn’t to say every pattern on there is bad, but you need to be careful. Checking to see that sellers are well known, they have good ratings on the sites, and they aren’t breaking any of the other rules above means they’re probably OK. But you need to be careful when purchasing from these places.
In addition, you can find massive online stores that look to be from China or Russia selling super cheap cross stitch patterns. It’s a good chance that these are built to spread malware. Whilst that is a very general term, I am yet to find a website like this that isn’t just spreading malware. If you’re ever unsure; check with other cross stitchers on Facebook groups, or cross stitch forums.